Aerodynamic study of a F1 front wing
Front and rear wings in motorsports are used to increase downforce and reduce drag of the vehicle. The latter is
achieved by directing the airflow around the main vehicle body avoiding creation of stagnation points and
airflow detachments. However, their main use is to increase downforce for increased vehicle driving stability at
Most wing aerodynamic designs achieve this goal easily, however, the engineer should also examine how the
produced force is transferred, through the rest of the body and suspension, on to the wheels. The wing must satisfy certain criteria, which most of the times are conflicting: a. It must be stiff to be able to transfer the produced load on the body/suspension/wheels, but not stiff enough, in order to avoid fracture;
use Star-CCM+ as a solver and post-processor for results visualization and
Each student will have the model of aerodynamic flow around the front wing design and is expected to run the
CFD solver for a speed of 200MPH as well as a different speed given to each student for the model. During this
step students should decide on the following:
• Should we model the complete wing, or is it a symmetric case that only requires modelling of
half of the wing?
• Is it steady or unsteady flow?
• Is it compressible or incompressible flow?
• Is it laminar or turbulent flow?
• What is the working fluid and its properties?
• What is mesh independence and how do we perform one?
• Do we need a uniform mesh size across our domain or variable and why?
• How would you know if solution is converged?
• What kind of flow visualization is needed?
Report - Part 1
Your report should be as confined as possible including as much information as possible. An “executive summary”, must not exceed 8-10 pages
make a note of the following and compile your discussion based on these:
• Overall pressure
1. Report Structure (10%)
Modelling and descriptions
2. Consider airflow around the F1 front wing when vehicle travels at speeds above 100mph.
3. Name all boundaries defined in your model, explain their physical meaning and the
initial conditions imposed on them. Explain your choice of modelling, i.e.
Steady/transient, compressible/incompressible, laminar/turbulent.
4. Elaborate on the turbulence model chosen. Why did you choose this model and what it can
do better than other available models?
5. Define the properties of the working fluid used in yourstudy.
6. Include figure(s) of the mesh in various locations that you believe are worth talking about.
Explain why (if this is the case) mesh looks different in different areas.
7. What is the meaning of local mesh element size (length) and how does it affect your results
(if it does)?
Results & Analysis
8. Describe running parameters of your CFD simulation (number of iterations, running time,
residuals) and comment on convergence of your simulation.
9. Provide appropriate figures to explain and comment on the overall flow behaviour around
this wing. These figures may be velocity plots on planes of your choice, streamlines, etc.
[login to view URL] on the above illustrations, what is your opinion on the size of the computational
domain used (length of “wind-tunnel”). Is it adequate or no and why?
[login to view URL] figures illustrating the pressure distribution around the wing surfaces; comment on
pressure distribution differentiation across the wing (why it happens as you show it).
[login to view URL] drag/lift and subsequent forces produced due to this wing design. Comment on
the calculated values and their meaning.
[login to view URL] all your study in a small paragraph and discuss on the results you have just shown from 7 to 11.
Judge your findings, your decisions and conclude.
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