When the current passes through the nickel and titanium alloy, the atoms are heated due to the heating jelly, so the atoms move crazy, fast and random, so the atoms are deformed in their shape and organization. This deformation is called hysteresis. When we add to the alloy a third element, which is Copper, atoms move at a slower speed, so the rate of deformation in the atoms is lower, so the amount of hysteresis will be less.
I want a Mathematical model or via MS-modeling to prove and show this theory.
MS-modeling is Materials Studio model /Simulation to predict and understand the relationships of a NiTi alloy’s atomic and molecular structure with its properties and behavior.
The NiTi alloys have the disadvantage of having a large hysteresis. Hysteresis could be generally described as an effort to return to a previous situation. For minimizing the hysteresis we replace a part of Ni atoms by Cu in the equiatomic NiTi alloy. Copper addition, as a ternary alloying element, results in increasing the characteristic temperatures of the martensitic transformation, when compared to a binary NiTi alloy. Moreover, copper causes good stability of characteristic temperatures and good corrosion resistance, narrow transformation hysteresis. In this project, we are interested to study the effects of an addition a third element to the NiTi alloy in an attempt to reduce the effect of hysteresis in SMA actuators. The main aim of this project is create a mathematical model to show that minimize the hysteresis can be done by adding the copper element to a NiTi to be a Ni(50−X)Ti50CuX alloy (where X = 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 at%) instead of Ni(50)Ti(50).