Mobile operators have met the surge in mobile data traffic and the growing number of rural subscribers by deploying more macro base stations. This increases overall energy consumption, operational costs and carbon footprint of cellular networks. As base stations are responsible for the large amount of energy consumed in cellular networks. It is now widely acknowledged that cellular communication networks will have greater economic and ecological impact in the coming years , . This issue has been recognized as a matter for the planet. While energy saving can be achieved by adopting renewable energy resources or improving design of certain hardware (e.g., power amplifier) to make it more energy-efficient, the cost of purchasing, replacing, and installing new equipment (including manpower, transportation, disruption to normal operation, as well as associated energy and direct cost) is often prohibitive.
In this research green mobile networking is considered and then we review existing green cellular networking research with particular focus on energy saving techniques such as Adaptive Hardware, Cell DTX, Antenna Muting, Adaptive Sectorization  that incorporate the concept of the “sleep mode” in base stations. It takes advantage of changing traffic patterns on daily or weekly basis and selectively switches some lightly loaded base stations to low energy consumption modes.
In order to improve the energy efficiency, the BS’s front end’s consumed power should be able to scale as much as possible to meet the amount of served traffic. To achieve this, for instance load adaptive CFR along with adaptive power supply (for variable input power) in the PA should be utilised. High energy efficiency power management is required for reconfigurable circuits as their key elements.
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